Determining the exact number of elements by means of counting.
The ability to identify a quantity of items without counting.
Acquiring an understanding of numbers and it's neural basis. The metaphorical capacity to understand the concepts of 0, infinitesimal, and infinity.
Blombos Ocher Plaque
An often under-served aspect of mind and brain research is hypothesizing how we came to possess our level of intelligence. Modern evolutionary neuroscience focuses on the physical changes of the brain throughout the hominoid lineage. Often overlooked is how we reached this level of intelligence. The ontogeny of life from single cells, early mammals, and primates have left physical remains which can be used to evaluate their respective cognitive abilities. By interpreting and comparing the archaeological artifacts of our hominin ancestors, we can hypothesize their relative tool making ability.
If the early humans had the aptitude to enumerate indefinitely, the rest of human capacity is amazingly plausible.